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xxx. Kratom:  Mitragyna speciosa
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Mitragyna speciosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Mitragyna
Species: M. speciosa
Binomial name
Mitragyna speciosa
(Korth.) Havil.
Synonyms[1]

  Nauclea korthalsii Steud. nom. inval.
  Nauclea luzoniensis Blanco
  Nauclea speciosa (Korth.) Miq.
  Stephegyne speciosa Korth.

Mitragyna speciosa (kratom, kratum, krathom, Thai: กระท่อม)[2] is a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Southeast Asia in the Indochina and Malesia floristic regions. Its leaves are used for medicinal properties. It is psychoactive, and leaves are chewed to uplift mood and to treat health problems.[3] M. speciosa is indigenous to Thailand and, despite growing naturally in the country, has been outlawed for 70 years and was originally banned because it was reducing the Thai government's tax revenue from opium distribution.[3]

Kratom behaves as a μ-opioid receptor agonist like morphine[4] and is used by those cycling opioid use in the management of chronic pain, as well as recreationally.[5] Kratom use is not detected by typical drug screening tests[5] but its metabolites can be detected by more specialized testing.[6] The pharmacological effects of kratom on humans, including efficacy and safety, are not well studied.[4] Kratom does not appear to have significant adverse effects but compulsive use is a risk for certain populations.[4] Side effects associated with chronic kratom use include loss of appetite and weight loss, constipation, and darkening of the skin color of the face.[5] Chronic users have reported withdrawal symptoms including irritability, runny nose and diarrhea.[6]
Contents

  1 Taxonomy and description
  2 Chemistry
  3 Use
  4 Media attention
  5 Regulation
  5.1 Thailand
  5.2 United States
  6 See also
  7 References
  8 Further reading

Taxonomy and description
Young M. speciosa tree

It was first formally described by the Dutch colonial botanist Pieter Korthals. The genus was named Mitragyna by Korthals because the stigmas in the first species he examined resembled the shape of a bishop's mitre. It is botanically related to the genera Corynanthe and Uncaria and shares some similar biochemistry.

Mitragyna speciosa trees usually grow to a height of 12–30 ft (3.7–9.1 m) tall and 15 ft (4.6 m) wide, although some species can reach 40–100 ft (12–30 m) in height. Mitragyna speciosa can be either evergreen or deciduous depending on the climate and environment in which it is grown. The stem is erect and branching. The leaves of the kratom tree are a dark green colour and can grow to over 7 inches (180 mm) long and 4 inches (100 mm) wide, are ovate-acuminate in shape, and opposite in growth pattern. The flowers are yellow and round and tend to grow in clusters at the end of the branches. The leaves of M. speciosa are elliptic and are smaller at the end of the branchlets and are pointed at the tip. The leaves have a round and heart-shape at the base with the petioles between 2 to 4 centimeters long. The flowers are crowded in a round terminal inflorescences which are three to five centimeters long. The calyx-tube is short and cup-shaped, with round lobes. The corolla-tube is five millimeters long with three millimiter long lobes and smooth and revolute in between.[7]
Chemistry

There are 40 compounds in M. speciosa leaves,[5] including many alkaloids including mitragynine (once thought to be the primary active constituent), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine (which is currently the most likely candidate for the primary active chemical in the plant).[8][9] Other active chemicals in M. speciosa include raubasine (best known from Rauwolfia serpentina) and some yohimbe alkaloids such as corynantheidine.[10]

Mitragyna speciosa also contains at least one alkaloid (rhynchophylline) that is a calcium channel blocker, and reduces NMDA-induced current.[11][12] There is considerable research as to the role of NMDA receptor activity in the formation of dependence, and the symptoms of withdrawal. In 2005, Inturrisi demonstrated that co-administration of d-methadone (the isomer that lacks opioid activity, but is an NMDA antagonist) in small doses with morphine prevented the development of morphine tolerance in rats.[13] The amount of mitragynine within the leaves depends highly on many factors, one major factor is the location of the tree. When trees are grown in Southeast Asia, the levels tend to be higher but when grown elsewhere (even in greenhouses) the levels tend to be low or non-existent.[4] One analysis of products marketed as kratom leaf found, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), mitragynine at levels of 1-6% and 7-hydroxymirtrogynine at levels of 0.01-0.04%.[14] The chemical structure of mitragynines incorporate the nucleus of the tryptamine, and these may be responsible for the molecules which are observed in the serotonin and adrnergic systems. In mitragynine, the phenolic methyl ether is considered to be stronger in analgesic paradigms according to some studies. Moreover, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of M. speciosa in humans has not been well studied and various aspects such as the half-life, protein binding properties and other properties such as the elimination or metabolism is not known.[15]
Use
Kratom leaves

Kratom has been traditionally chewed, in raw leaf form, by people in Thailand and especially in the southern peninsula. Kratom is also used in neighboring countries in Southeast Asia where it grows naturally.[3] As traditionally used, kratom is not seen as a drug and there is no stigma associated with kratom use or discrimination against kratom eaters.[3] In southern Thailand, kratom has been a part of traditional culture for thousands of years and is common in traditional cultural performances and in agriculture.[16] In southern Thailand, kratom chewers generally start at around the age of 25 and many continue to chew the leaves for the rest of their lives. The average number of leaves consumed is between 10 and 60 leaves consumed daily, but even more than this is common. In southern Thailand, upwards of 70% of the male population uses kratom on a daily basis in some areas. Traditional use of kratom is considered equivalent to drinking coffee. M. speciosa may be mixed or co-ingested with dextromethorphan-containing cough syrup, amphetamines, or benzodiazepines.[3]

Kratom and its derivatives have been used as a substitute for opium as well as an aid for the management of opium withdrawl. Data on the incidence and prevalence of its use are lacking, as physicians are generally unfamiliar with it, and its use is not detected by typical drug screening tests.[5] Kratom metabolites can be detected by specialized mass spectrometry tests.[6] Incidence of kratom use appears to be increasing among those who have been self-managing chronic pain with opioids purchased without a prescription and are cycling (but not quitting) their use. Its popularity has also been increasing among college students.[5]

The pharmacological effects of kratom on humans are not well studied. Its metabolic half-life, protein binding, and elimination characteristics are all unknown.[4] Medically, kratom behaves as a μ-opioid receptor agonist like morphine.[4] As of 2011, there have been no formal clinical trials performed to study the efficacy or safety of kratom to treat opioid addiction.[4] Kratom does not appear to have significant adverse effects, and in particular appears not to cause the hypoventilation typical of other opioids.[4] Compulsive use has been reported among drug abusers who inject opioids, and those who use opioids to manage pain without direction from medical professionals.[4] Side effects associated with chronic kratom use include loss of appetite and weight loss, constipation, and darkening of the skin color of the face.[5] Chronic users have reported withdrawal symptoms including irritability, runny nose and diarrhea.[6]

Kratom has seen therapeutic use in Thai ethnomedicine as an antidiarrhoeal, as a treatment for opioid dependence, and rarely to increase the duration of coitus.[17][18][19] A general consensus exists in Thailand among leaders, public health officials, academics and policymakers that kratom use and dependence causes little, if any, health risks.[3]
Media attention

Kratom, like other herbs with drug-like properties, is frequently a concern of politicians, journalists and regulatory officials.[20][21] A recent incident[when?] involving a 27 year old woman from Kelso, Washington was blamed on kratom consumption. The woman was arrested after being caught naked running in the street with a hammer. According to reports she had smoked marijuana laced with chemicals prior to this incident in addition to consuming kratom.[22][23]
Regulation

Kratom alone, when chewed or boiled into a tea, is indeed quite harmless according to the available literature. While additional research is needed, it has been said[3] that the criminalization of kratom is unfounded and is based on economic control and disinformation. There are very few records available showing negative health or social consequences from kratom consumption, but despite this fact kratom is becoming increasingly subject to actions of law enforcement in numerous countries. The criminalization of kratom has created numerous barriers for research. In Thailand, the eradication campaigns have made it especially difficult for academics and researchers to adequately research the medicinal benefits of kratom. It has been recommended by the transnational institute that kratom be decriminalized and has concluded that the criminalization of kratom to be unnecessary, problematic and counter-productive. It also concluded that the evidence showing the health benefits of kratom, especially in treating drug and alcohol dependence, should serve as an important point to consider.[3]
Thailand

Prohibition

Possession of kratom leaves is illegal in Thailand, despite the tree being native to the country. The Thai government passed the Kratom Act 2486 which went into effect on August 3, 1943. This law makes planting the tree illegal and requires existing trees to be cut down. This law was not found effective, since the tree is indigenous to the country. Today, kratom is scheduled in category 5 of the Narcotics Acts (1979), in the same category as cannabis and magic mushrooms (the least punitive category). A large aspect of Thai culture supports kratom, however despite this fact the Thai government has initiated a program of destroying kratom trees by burning forests or chopping large sections of kratom forests down. Eradication campaigns often destroy not only the trees but also other trees and wildlife in these areas, which are often untouched rainforests with sensitive ecosystems.[3]

Proposed decriminalization

In 2010, the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board proposed decriminalizing kratom and affirmed its use as an integral part of Thai culture. The ONCB concluded that decades of unproblematic use, and an absence of health and social harm, make prohibiting the leaf unnecessary and counterproductive. According to the ONCB's report, kratom was in fact banned for economic reasons, not for health or social concerns. In a snippet from a book written by Cassandra Hoffman:

  "In Thailand, kratom was first scheduled for control in 1943 under the Kratom Act. At the time, the government was levying taxes from users and shops involved in the opium trade. Because of the increasing opium costs, many users were switching to kratom to manage their withdrawal symptoms. However, the launch of the Greater East Asia War in 1942 and declining revenues from the opium trade pushed the Thai government into action to curb and suppress competition in the opium market by making kratom illegal."[3]

While additional research is needed,[3] kratom proponents argue that the criminalization of kratom is unfounded and is based on economic control and misinformation. The criminalization of kratom has made research more difficult,[according to whom?] especially in Thailand. It has been recommended by the Transnational Institute that kratom be decriminalized and that the criminalization of kratom to be unnecessary, problematic and counter-productive. The Institute also argues that the evidence showing the health benefits of kratom, particularly in treating drug and alcohol dependence, are worth exploring further.[3]
United States

Kratom itself is not regulated by the United States federal government, though the Drug Enforcement Administration includes the tree in its "Drug and Chemical of Concern" list.[24]

Indiana House of Representatives HB1196, sponsored by Edward DeLaney, Steve Davisson, Terri Austin, Vernon G. Smith, and David Yarde during the 2012 regular session as a response to increasing synthetic drug use, made Indiana the first and only state to ban kratom, although indirectly.[25] The text of the bill added kratom's two active alkaloids—mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine—to the state's list of controlled substances, though kratom itself is not synthetic and was not specifically addressed by the authors of the bill. Petitioners on Change.org subsequently sought delisting of kratom's alkaloids by raising the issue with Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels.[26]

Iowa legislators grouped Mitragyna speciosa as a synthetic cannabinoid when a bill was proposed that would reclassify nearly all controlled substances in their state.[27][28] The Louisiana legislature proposed an age limit of 18 to be able to legally purchase, possess and consume kratom. Violators would have been assessed a penalty of no more than $500, or sentenced to six months in jail, or both.[29] Massachusetts Representative Daniel K. Webster sponsored legislation in 2011 that would have included compounds of Mitragyna speciosa in the state's controlled substance classification list.[30]
See also